INTRODUCTION OF THE REPORT STATEMENT OF PROJECT: The statement of our topic is “EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENT ON THE BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF FEMALES” So at the very beginning, we’ll define that what is the advertisement, its history, its Medias and what are the reasons to advertise. WHAT IS ADVERTISEMENT? “PAID, MEDIATED PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION ABOUT SERVICES, PRODUCTS, OR IDEAS WITH THE SPECIFIC GOAL OF INFLUENCING CONSUMERS OR THE PUBLIC”. THE ADVERTISER PURCHASES TIME (RADIO, TELEVISION, CABLE) OR SPACE (PRINT PUBLICATIONS—NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, SHOPPER)—OR ON BILLBOARDS OR OTHER DISPLAY OPPERTUNITIES SUCH AS BUS CARDS. ADVERTISING IS EVERYWHERE…” • In our homes • In the supermarkets • On the streets • On airplanes • On trains • Even in schools, colleges and universities. “WHY ADVERTISEMENT IS THE GOAL OF INFLUENSING…” ADVERTISEMENT IS A PERSUASIVE MESSAGE • HERE’S why my product (or service or idea) is better than your alternatives… • If you buy my product (or service or idea) your life will be improved in this way… HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENT HERE IS A BRIEF HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENT IN THE WORLD… Johannes Gutenberg |1441 |Inventiuon of Movable Type | |Volney Palmer |1841 |First Advertising Agency | |Robert Bonner |1850 |First Great Advertising Campaign | |”Doctor” Drake |1860- |Patent Medicine | |Lydia Pinkham |1890 |Patent Medicine | |George Rowell |1869 |American Newspaper Directory | |Francis W. Ayer |1875 |Open Contract | |John Powers |1880 |First Copywriting “Superstar” | |Adolphus Green |1890 |Branding | |J.
Walter Thompson |1885 |The Account Executive | |Cyrus Curtis | |Growth of Magazine Advertising | |Earnest Elmo Caulkins |1895 |Art Direction | |John E. Kennedy |1904 |Reason-Why Copy | |Albert Lasker |1904 |The Modern Advertising Agency | |Claude C. Hopkins |1906 |”Scientific” Advertising | |Theodore McManus |1915 |Impressionism | |Stanley & Helen Resor |1920 |Social
Sciences in Advertising | | | |Women in Advertising | |Raymond Rubicam |1923 |Advertising Research | | | |Creative Experimentation | | |1926 |Commercial Radio | |Leo Burnett |1930- |Inherent Drama | | |1947 |Commercial Television | |Rosser Reeves |1950 |Unique Selling Proposition | |David Ogilvy |1950 |Brand Image | |Marion Harper |1950-60 |Agency Mergers & Integrated Services | |William Bernbach |1960 |Creative Revolution | |Jay Chiat |1990- |Advertising in the ’90sCreativity & Brand Building | |Hal Riney | | |
FIRST ADVERTISING AGENCY IN PAKISTAN “Manhattan Pakistan” |Head |: |Col. Aizaz ul Waheed | | |Affiliation |: |None | | |Brief Intro |: |We were one of the first Pakistani-owned ad agencies to enter Pakistan’s advertising arena and have | | | | |remained one of the front-runners ever since. Today MPL ranks as one of the top agencies in terms of | | | | |business volume and client portfolio. | | | | | | | | |Serving the promotional needs of numerous clients both Above The Line (ATL) and through Below The Line | | | | |(BTL) for the last four decades, Manhattan Pakistan has now entered in its fifth decade with the fervor | | | | |to build brands through consumer insights by converting buyers into brand believers. | | |History |: |We first saw the light of day in 1954, establishing our roots in Karachi, Pakistan. We operate with a | | | | |strong family feeling, with 100 professionals steering the agency on a straight course towards success! | | | | | | | | |We maintain the delicate balance between conceptualization, to product positioning and an effective | | | | |performance in the marketplace. | | | | | | | | | |We have helped influence consumer preferences and changing lifestyles. | | | | |We are Manhattan Pakistan! | | |Founded |: |1954 | | Top |: |Instaphone | |Clients | |Askari Bank | | | |PTV | | | |Burraq Telecom | | | |PTCL | NOTE: DETAILS OF TOP ADVERTISING AGENCIES IN PAKISTAN ARE ATTACHED AT THE END OF REPORT IN ANNEXURES. MAJOR ADVERTISING MEDIAS IN 1970’S FOLLOWING MASS MEDIAS BOCAME MATURE IN THE WHOLE WORLD… NEWS PAPERS (DOMINATE) • TELEVISION • DIRECT MAIL • RADIO • MAGAZINES • OTHERS (BILL BOARDS, TRADE PRESS ETC…) IN 1980’s, CABLE ADVERTISING GREW AND IN 1990’s, INTERNET ADVERTISING GREW. Specific media within each general media type MAJOR ADVERTISING MEDIAS IN PAKISTAN IN THE BOUNDARIES OF PAKISTAN, FOLLOWING MEDIAS ARE WORKING: o TV o Radio o Media Buying Houses o Media Representatives o Media Monitoring Agencies o Media Marketing Firms o New Media Companies o Internet Service Providers o Major English Dailies o Major Urdu Dailies o English Eveningers o Urdu Eveningers o English Magazines o Urdu Magazines TYPES OF ADVERTISEMENT: Product Advertising:
In which manufacturers wants to focus on products For example: Head & shoulders shampoo. Institutional Advertising When focus on brand name of the company For example: McDonald, KFC. Informative Advertising The purpose of the companies to give some sort of information For example Telenor informed earlier to its launching of network Persuasive Advertising When any company launches a new product For example When warid telecom introduces any new package Reminder Advertising Telling the consumer that there is also additional attributes in our product For example When Pepsi introduces additional taste in bottles as Pepsi twist Comparative Advertising
When we compare any two products For example Supreme vs. Lipton Celebrity Testimonial When companies cast a celebrity in its advertisement For example Ali zafar, reema, meera and amna huq in LUX ADD now days Retail Advertising When shop keepers advertise their shops or malls For example Pace Interactive Advertising Contact through the telephonic conversation to sell the product. For example It happens basically in business to business advertisement like when pharmaceutical companies advertise their new medicines to the doctors. Advertising a Service Instead Of A Product Advertising services is one of the most difficult type of advertising.
You don’t have a tangible product you can put in someone’s hand. They can’t touch it, feel it, see it or smell it. For example Advertisement for new admission opens in university. REASONS TO ADVERTISE Advertising is such an important thing for a business to do, advertising is not just important for businesses but for things that offer services. Advertising tells people about your product or products so they can be sold. Big companies such as McDonalds and Colgate Palmolive don’t need to advertise because their products are already known throughout the world, but when these two first came out they would have had to have spent millions of pounds on advertising to get them to the stage where they are now.
The following may be the maximum reasons to advertise… • Produce leads • Educate prospects about the benefits you offer • Expand into new markets • Influence the people who influence others (the trendsetters) • Make your name known to people who have never heard of you • Pre-sell your offering (prior to the sales person’s call) • Expand upon a public relations story • Tell the story of your company • Add authority to your message (by putting it into print, people equate advertising with success) • Build your corporate identity • Build confidence in your product/services • Dispel an ugly rumor • Keep your name in the forefront of your customers’ minds • Head off competitors Go after competitors’ business • Prove your quality with success stories • Make your stockholders happy • Assert your leadership • Maintain a constant public presence • Help your direct mail pay off • Announce the existence of your product • Gain credibility • Become a brand name • Establish a niche • Highlight testimonials from satisfied customers • Test something • Create a desire to buy • Make sales • Obtain names for your prospect or customer mailing list • Inform many people at the same time • Motivate people to call or e-mail or send coupon • Engage in research by studying the profiles of respondents • Prove your superiority • … to earn a profit Demogra
PROS AND CONS OF ADVERTISEMENTS Advertising – Good or Bad? “Advertising – Good or Bad” In today’s society, one must consider – Is there any advantage of advertising? In many cases it is only disadvantage – An annoying hindrance in our daily lives. It gets on our nerves, distorts the truth, and adds to the cost of the product. Advertising is designed for one purpose – to sell. To achieve this goal, advertises are willing to stretch and distort the truth, just to convincing people to buy their product. For example, an advertiser may convince buyers to purchase their product by stating that has been tested and found superior. In reality, the product is not likely to be etter than any other – the tests themselves doubtlessly conducted by the promoting company – conducted to ensure at least something is superior about the product, even if it is only the color. These advertisements are worded carefully so that they are telling the “literal truth” – the truth is exactly what the words say, although people misinterprets the message by using conversational logic as something different – something better. By using ingenious tactics like these, the populace is deceived into buying a product that may not do what is required, or a product which a buyer may have never really needed. This is why advertising is a bad thing, for our society. FOLLOWING ARE THE BASIC ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ADVERTISMENT. | | |Advantages |Disadvantages | |Attracts a large audience |Standardized messages lack | |Gains pass along readership |flexibility | |(for print) |Some media require large | |Low cost per contact |investments | |Many alternatives available |Geographic flexibility limited | |Control over message content; |Some media require long lead | |message can be standardized |time | |Message study possible |Some media have high | |Editorial content surrounds ad |throwaway rate | |Self-service operations |Some media limit the ability to | |possible |provide detailed information | PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: EFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON THE BUYING BEHAVIOR OF FEMALES: As our basic research process is concerned with the effects of advertisements on the buying behavior of females so on this regards we’ll conduct a full research process to evaluate that how much the advertisement affects the buying behavior of females. As it is a very known saying that “Customer is the king of the market” Now here we believe that females are the queens of the market.
As large areas of markets are occupied by the females so their buying behavior means a lot for the manufacturers. They must be very careful in their marketing strategies and should consider the females attitude towards consumption of their product. Now here our basic purpose of research is to come to the result that what are the basic things regarding to products that largely affect the buying behavior of females and how much advertising influence their buying. When we’ll get our findings then we’ll give very fruitful suggestions to the marketing departments of the organizations that how they can increase their sale amongst the females. RESEARCH PROCESS
Now coming towards the basic topic, we’ll start from here the major portion of our report which is the research process through which we’ll conclude what we find and what are the recommendations for the marketing departments of the organizations. TYPE OF RESEARCH: As our research is for all the organizations so we can say that our research type is BASIC or PURE RESEARCH, which is on a general topic. OBSERVATION: “Observation means to see or feel what certain changes are occurring or new behaviors, attitudes and feelings are surfacing”. It is the stage when problem is not defined yet. There are four types of observation such as: 1) Currently existing problem 2) Situation requiring improvements 3) Theoretical or conceptual problem 4) Problem requiring empirical answers Here in our project, the problem can be SITUATION REQUIRING IMPROVEMENT…
Because we are going to conduct the whole research process on the buying behavior of females, so situation is satisfactory as females buy more and more with the passage of time. We just want to reach at those results which tell us that which things influence the females buying. Is it advertisement, quality, appearance or any other thing…? So our basic research is on a situation in which we observe the buying behavior of females having different taste, different preferences, and living in different cities of Pakistan and are of different ages. PRELIMINARY DATA COLLECTION: “It means to seek information in order to know more about what we observed”
Here we are working on a broader term that which factors influence the females buying behavior so we have to collect data from different tools to confirm our observation that which things actually influence the female buying and how much advertisement play role in their buying behavior. Primary Data can be collected by the following two ways; 1- Interviews 2- Literature Survey 1. interviews: Interviews are conducted for the following reasons… • To bring preliminary issues to the surface so that researcher can determine about variables of interest. • To understand the scenario of situation. • To explore the variables in the situation. INTERVIWS MAY BE OF TWO TYPES: ? Structured interviews ? Unstructured interviews STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS: “In structured interviews the interviewer asks those questions which are pre planned.
All the questions are well prepared and the interviewer can easily ask the questions in a series from an appropriate Respondent. It is also called formal interview”. Unstructured interview: “In unstructured interviews normally the interviewer asks the questions without any predetermined sequence. The question which comes first in the mind of the interviewer will be asked first. It is also called informal interview. ” For the purpose of collecting the preliminary data about our observation, we conducted some unstructured interviews from following 2 SECTORS… A. EDUCATIONAL SECTOR B. ADVERTISING AGENCY EDUCATIONAL SECTOR: FROM EDUCATIONAL SECTOR WE SELECTED THE FEMALE MEMBERS OF FOLLOWING INSTITUTIONS… 1. THE WELL KNOWNED FEMALE TEACHERS OF UNIVERSITY OF THE LAHORE 2.
THE TEACHERS OF AN INSTITUTION, PAK AIMS IN LAHORE 3. THE FEMALE TEACHERS OF D & E ACADEMY GUJRANWALA. 4. FROM THE FEMALE STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF THE LAHORE, PAK AIMS AND D & E ACADEMY. According to the structured and unstructured interviews which we have conducted to the above females, we collected the following information about our situation problem… • Females mostly prefer the quality of the product • Advertisement effects their buying but the routine products which they use to buy from many years, from them they don’t see that for which product advertisement is good. they just buy that product as routine E. g. Max bar, head & shoulders shampoo… Females are more attractive towards products like cosmetics, clothing, shoes… Especially working women • Advertisement is also the biggest cause to influence the buying behavior of females but advertisements should be approved by the marketing departments of companies. advertising agency 2. Literature surveys: It is also a part of Primary Data Collection. The purpose of literature review is to ensure that no variable is ignored that has been consider important in the past. Literature Survey can be defined in the following manner; “Documentation of comprehensive review of published and unpublished work from secondary sources of data in area of interest”
As far as our topic is concerned, we selected the following literatures from internet for the purpose of preliminary data collection… 1) AAEC 3100 Food and Fiber Marketing Dr. Steven C. Turner Chapter 6 Analyzing Consumer Markets & Buying Behavior In which we found the following data that Major Factors which Influence the Consumer Behavior can be… ? Cultural ? Social ? Personal ? Psychological 2) From the study of an article published in the site… www. csustan. edu/market/petrosky/Old3410/34Lect5CB/tsld0… www. csustan. edu/market/petrosky/Old3410/34Lect5CB/tsld018. htm In this article we found the following things according to consumer buying behavior… Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Buyer Psychological
Personal Social Culture Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Culture • Social Class • People within a social class tend to exhibit similar buying behavior. • Occupation • SOURCE of Income • Education • Wealth Most basic cause of a person’s wants and behavior Values Perceptions Subculture Groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences. Mature Consumers Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Social • Reference Group influence: • Membership Groups: • Primary and Secondary • Non-membership groups: • Aspiration and Dissociative • More important with publicly consumed products • Family influences: • Stage of the family lifecycle Buying Roles in the family Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Psychological • Psychological • Factors • Motivation • Perception • Learning • Beliefs and • Attitudes So according to these literature surveys and from the interviews, we confirm our observation that there are some specific things which highly influence the consumer’s buying behavior, especially of female customers. PROBLEM DEFINITION After the preliminary data collection, we can now develop a statement to explain the basic problem. Any gap between desired situation and actual situation is called Problem and brief statement that explains any thing is called Definition. So, Problem Definition means: A statement that explains what the real problem is, what types of factors are involved in this problem and finally what are consequences of a problem. ” After going through interviews and literature review we check the following essential elements of Problem Definition: 1) Antecedents(Contributing Factors) 2) Real Problem(What is Wrong) 3) Consequences(Results) The problem definition of our project can be explained with the help of following diagram: (Real situation) (Consequences) (Antecedents) ANTECEDENTS: Antecedents are the contributing factors which are responsible for the real problem. In our project antecedents are 1- PRICE 2- QUALITY 3- ADVERTISEMENT 4- IMPORTED PRODUCTS 5- PURCHASING POWER 6- STATUS
These are the antecedents because these are the basic reasons behind the buying behavior of females. These above antecedents effects directly or indirectly to the buying behavior of females. Real Problem: “As we know that well defined problem is half solved and symptoms are not the real problems. ” Real problem is that situation which results from the antecedents or contributing factors. So in our project real situation which is created from the contributing factors is: “How the buying behavior of females is influencing? Which factors influence it and is the advertisement a basic factor”? Consequences: “Consequences are the results of real problem”
In our project consequence is “The economy will be price and quality oriented” this consequence is the result of the preliminary data collection as when we conduct interviews, mostly females think that they prefer the quality from all other factors. Theoretical framework “It is a logical developed, described & elaborated network of associations among variables that have been identified through interviews, observation & literature survey” Variables: The identification of key variables is very important in every research study. It can be defined as: “A variable is anything that takes different values. ” Types of Variables: ? Dependent variable Independent variable ? Moderating variable ? Intervening variable ? Extraneous variable 1. Dependent variable “Any variable that will depend on others for its values” In our project, our dependent variable is “BUYING BEHAVIOR OF FEMALES” Now we’ll explain the effect of other factors on this dependent variable in detail in our whole project. 2. Independent Variables: It is the variable on which the dependant variable depends upon for its value “The major causes of a problem are called independent variables. ” In our project, our independent variables are: ? Price ? Quality ? Advertisement ? Purchasing power ? Substitutes ? Imported products
Now in the research process we’ll see that which are the basic most important factors which mostly influence the buying behavior of females. 3. Moderating Variable “The variable which has strong contingent effect on the relationship of dependent & independent variable” It is also called second independent variable. In our project, our moderating variables are: ? Role of marketing departments of the companies ? Above is the moderating variable because it has a strong contingent effect on the relationship of dependent variables and independent variables. As if marketing departments make the good strategies to attract the customers then they can increase their sale volume. 4. Intervening Variables There are some factors which have effect on the situation but we can not measure them quantitatively, we can just feel their effect. ” These variables will be created automatically by the working of independent variables. In our project intervening variables are as follows: ? Status consciousness ? Willingness to buy The effect of these variables can only be felt but we can not measure them quantitatively. These variables contribute an important role on the creation of the problem. 5. Extraneous Variables: “There are infinite numbers of factors which may have impact on the situation but we will ignore these factors by assuming them as constant are called extraneous variables. ” In our project extraneous variable is as follows ? Sales tax
As sales tax has little effect on the buying behavior so it can be easily ignored Here we show the relationship of different types of variables diagrammatically (Dependant Variable) (Intervening Variables) (Independent Variables) (Moderating Variables) (Extraneous Variables) Hypothesis development “A hypothesis is a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement. ” OR “A statement whose validity will be confirm in future by applying different statistical tools” So, in hypothesis we confirmed the validity of any statement after the experiments or data collection.
KINDS OF HYPOTHESIS: ? DESCRIPTIVE ? RELATIONAL This can be further classified as… o Co relational hypothesis o Casual hypothesis. Co relational Hypothesis: “When a statement will create relationship among more than two factors or when causes of a problem are more than one, the hypothesis about such a problem will be called as co relational hypothesis. ” OR “When there is only one problem and there are a lot of factors or variables which Increase the problem is also called Co relational Hypothesis”. In our study there is the situation of buying behavior of females and there are many independent variables which influence the buying behavior of females.
Now we will check the relationship amongst those variables by creating the Hypothesis and applying certain Statistical tools which will tell us that which factor is strongly in connection with the buying behavior of females. So the following is the creation of Hypothesis of different factors that affect the buying behavior of females… Female preferences: H? : females do not prefer quality of the product while buying H1: females prefer quality of the products while buying. Influence of advertisements: H? : Advertisement has no influence on the buying behavior of females H1: advertisement has influence on the buying behavior of females. Status consciousness H? : females do not prefer status/self image while buying.
H1: females prefer status/ self image while buying. Negative effects of advertisements: H? : there is not any negative effect of advertisement on the buying behavior of females H1: there is any negative effect on the buying behavior of females. Advertisements of substitutes: H? : advertisements of the substitutes do not affect the popularity of the product. H1: advertisements of the substitutes affect the popularity of the product. Imported goods: H? : imported good are not more attractive for females H1: imported goods are more attractive for females. Satisfaction level: H? : good advertisements are not the basic cause of satisfaction of females towards consumption of goods.
H1: good advertisements are the basic cause of satisfaction of females towards consumption of goods. Advertised products: H? : females do not prefer the advertised products on necessities of life H1: females prefer the advertised products on the necessities of life. Product success or failure: H? : advertisements can not become the cause of any product success or failure. H1: advertisements can become the cause of product failure or success. Demand of the product: H? : advertisements cannot create the demand of any product. H1: advertisements can create the demand of any product. RESEARCH DESIGN: It is a major and pivotal step of business research.
The step involves the overall scheme about data collection. “Research design is a plan and structure of investigation to obtain answer to research question. It is overall scheme and program of research which includes an outline of what the researcher will do from developing hypothesis and to the final analysis of data”. Research design constitutes the blue print for collection, measurement and analysis of data. R. D is plan and structure of investigation to obtain answer to research questions. PURPOSE OF STUDY: In the purpose of study, researcher defines the purpose behind the research. These may be 4 types of purposes: 1. exploration 2. description 3. hypothesis 4. case study
Here in our research process, our purpose of study is to evaluate that WHAT affects the female’s buying behavior, WHICH are the factors, which influence the buying behavior of females, HOW advertisements affect the buying behavior of females. So we can say that as we are explaining an existing situation so our purpose of study is Description. ” Objective of descriptive study is to learn the who, how, what, when, where of a topic. TYPES OF INVESTIGATIONS: Investigation is conducted to complete the research process efficiently. Investigations may be of two types: 1. casual investigation 2. co relational investigation CO RELATIONAL INVESTIGATION:
The investigation which is conducted to explain the effect of different variables on the situation is called co relational investigation. In simple words, we can say that when there are more than one reasons of a problem it is called co relational investigation. In our research process, Our type of investigation is “Non Casual” because there is more than one reason which influences the buying behavior of females. RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE: In researcher interference we see that which type of study is going to be conduct by our group. Either it is 1. co relational study, in which minimum involvement of researcher is required because it is based on findings of others, or 2.
Casual study, in which researcher involvement is more. As we are conducting research through the findings of others so our involvement is minimum in the findings of research. STUDY SETTING: It means in which type of environment we’ve conducted our research process. The study setting may be of 2 types: a. Contrived This can be further classified as o Lab experiment. b. non-contrived This can also be further classified as o Field study. o Field experiment. Non-contrived: “When the research is conducted in natural or normal environment, it will be called non contrived study. ” Normally, this type of study is conducted inside the organization. Field Study: When the researcher has to co related the factors then investigation out side the organization is called as Field Study. ” So, the type of our study setting is non-contrived and during our research we also conducted Field Study. UNIT OF ANALYSIS: It is aggregation of data during subsequent analysis. Data can be gathered form: ? Individuals ? Dyads ? Groups ? Organizations It depends upon the nature of problem that is being investigated. In our research process, we’ve gathered the data from INDIVIDUALS in the form of questionnaires and from ORGANIZATIONS in the form of interviews. TIME HORIZON: In which we mention that how much time we’ve used in data collection.
Time horizon has two types 1. cross-sectional 2. longitudinal Longitudinal study: “As In Longitudinal method the whole data is collected again and again with out any time interval. ” So in our research time horizon is Longitudinal. SAMPLING: The process of using a small number of items or parts of a large population to make conclusions about the whole population The basic purpose of sampling is; To obtain maximum information about the characteristics of population with in less time, cost and effort There are two types or styles of Sampling. That is ? Probability Sampling ? Non Probability Sampling WHERE PROBABILITY SAMPLING CONTAINS: 1. Complex random sampling
This further can be classify as o Systematic Sampling o Stratified Sampling o Cluster Sampling o Area Sampling o Double Sampling 2. simple random sampling AND NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS: 1. Convenient sampling 2. purposive sampling o judgment approach o quota approach here in our research process, we’ve done the complex random sampling under the head of probability sampling in which we’ve used the CLUSTER SAMPLING APPROACH in which sample is chosen on the basis of intra- group heterogeneity and inter-group homogeneity. As we are comparing here the females with females so our sampling criteria is inter-group homogeneity. DATA COLLECTION METHODS:
There are two types of data collection methods. 1. primary data collection • structured interviews • unstructured interviews 2. secondary data collection • questionnaires Structured Interview: “Structured Interviews are conducted when it is known at the outset what information is needed. The interviewer has a list of pre-determined questions to be asked of the respondents either personally, through the telephone, or by sending the main through electronic mail. ” Un-Structured Interview: “In case of unstructured interview, the interviewer asks the questions without any pre-determined sequence. Those questions are asked first which come in the mind of the interviewer first. So we conducted Structured Interviews with the employees of different selected organizations. And our method of collecting Primary Data is through Structured Interviews and Un-structured Interviews which we have already discussed in preliminary data collection methods. Unobtrusive measures: “It means to trace the measures from a primary source that does not involve people. ” In the primary data collection, we also use this technique by just observing the buying behavior of females of our homes and near our homes. Questionnaire: “A questionnaire is a reformulated written set of questions to which respondents record their answers, usually within rather closely defined alternatives. Questionnaires are an efficient data collection mechanism when the researcher knows exactly what is required and how to measure the variables of interest. Questionnaire can be administered personally, mailed to respondents, or electronically distributed. During our research process we made close ended questionnaires, and these are personally administered. Measurement of Measures: “Measurement of measures is a key step in research design; it means to measure the information collected from different respondents by different ways by using different methods of data collection, to check the accuracies and reliability of data or information collected.
It is also called the MOM of research. ” Scale: “Scale is a tool by which the individual units are distinguished on the basis of variable of interest in some meaningful way. ” We can say that scales will categories the things into different groups. Types of Scales a) Nominal Scale b) Ordinal Scale c) Interval Scale d) Ratio Scale APPROACHES OF SCALING: a) Dictorious scaling. b) Category scaling. c) Likert scaling. d) Semantic scaling. e) Numerical scaling. f) Ranking scaling. g) Fixed scaling. h) Psychological scaling i) Graphic scaling In our designing of questionnaire, we have used the following approaches in questions, Dictorious scaling Category scaling
Semantic scaling Ranking scaling Graphical scaling (in every question) DATA PREPERATION FOR ANALYSIS: Before analyzing the data, we’ve edit our data due to the reason that there should be not any mistake in data which can cause the error in the data analysis. Types of Editing ? Field editing ? Central Editing FIELD EDITING: According to this approach, researcher makes the corrections at the time of getting information from the respondents. So in our research process, we used this approach at each and every step due to which our data is correct and having no mistake or blanks in it. Now we can analyze it through different techniques. DATA ANALYSIS
For the purpose of analyze the validity and reliability of data, certain statistical tools Averages Correlation Percentage etc are applied. Here for the confirmation of our research we will use the percentage technique in which mea of the data is also calculated. NOW WE’LL ANALYZE ALL THE FACTORS INVOLVED IN ALL QUESTIONS OF OUR QUESTIONNAIR TO COME AT THE CONCLUSION THAT WHAT ARE THE BASIC FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE FEMALE BUYING BEHAVIOR AND HOW MUCH ADVERTISING PLAYS THE ROLE IN IT: We’ll analyze here each and every question one by one, keep in mind that this questionnaire was only for females. Q#1: What is your preference while buying? Frequency Table Your preference while buying | | | | | | | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |price |33 |11. 0 |11. 0 |11. 0 | | |quality |134 |44. 7 |44. 7 |55. 7 | | |appearance |24 |8. 0 |8. 0 |63. 7 | | |local or imported |22 |7. 3 |7. 3 |71. | | |all of the above |87 |29. 0 |29. 0 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: In this question we want to evaluate that which factors basically influence the female buying. We filled the 300 questionnaires from 300 females of different ages and from different areas. When we took the frequency of our results provided by females, we come to the result that the main basic factor which hardly influences the female buying is PRODUCT QUALITY.
Many females have also selected the price and appearance and imported products, but according to the results it is approved that they give more preference to the quality of any product. At the second place, mostly females also selected the last option which is ALL OF THE ABOVE, which means now days females do shopping according to a planning. They buy each and every thing with full concentration and do not compromise with any thing while buying. So at the result, we can say that females give first priority while buying to the quality and then to the other influencing factors. HENCE THE RESULT Q#2: Do advertisements influence your buying? Frequency Table
Do adver influence buying | | | | | | | | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |yes |193 |64. 3 |64. 3 |64. 3 | | |no |58 |19. 3 |19. 3 |83. 7 | | |I don’t know |49 |16. 3 |16. 3 |100. | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: We structured the above question according to the basic requirement of our research topic which is EFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON THE BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF FEMALES. So according to the above findings, we can see that 193 females are agreed upon the fact that their buying influenced with the advertisements. Which means advertisement is also a basic factor of influencing females buying behavior. Secondly 58 females said that advertisement do not influence their buying.
This may be due to the fact that Pakistan is a poor country and females can’t bear too much expensive things so they always cant follow the advertisements while buying the necessities of life. And the last portion of females, which is 49…they said that they don’t have any idea about it which means they do shopping according to the routine matters. They don’t prefer which things are newly emerging in advertising Medias. HENCE THE RESULT Q#3: While buying, you are more conscious towards: Frequency Table Conscious towards | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent| |Valid |advertisement |33 |11. 0 |11. 0 |11. 0 | | |status |51 |17. 0 |17. 0 |28. 0 | | |price, quality |141 |47. 0 |47. 0 |75. 0 | | |all of the above |75 |25. 0 |25. 0 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: Above question was administered by our group by keeping in mind the female psyche that when they go to the market to buy something, they are more conscious towards which things. So according to the results we also got the same answers as we got in question one because mostly females said that they prefer quality and price factor while buying. They do not compromise with the quality of the product. Others are the secondary things. Here we can observe that status also influence the buying behavior because in our country females often consider the status while buying.
HENCE THE RESULT Q#4: Do you prefer status/self image during buying? Frequency Table Status preferences | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative | | | | | | |Percent | |Valid |i think so |154 |51. 3 |51. 3 |51. 3 | | |i dont think so |44 |14. 7 |14. 7 |66. 0 | | |seldom think so |64 |21. 3 |21. 3 |87. | | |i dont know |38 |12. 7 |12. 7 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: Here we can see that how status effects the female buying behavior. Here in our country females are very conscious for their self image so we can see that in the results 144 females agree that they consider the self image while buying. Secondly females said that they seldom think that they consider the status while buying because they also consider the price and quality of the products as well because they are also very important.
At the last some females said that they are not status conscious and some said that they don’t know that either they consider the self image while buying or not. These may be those females which only prefer to buy basic necessities life and belongs to middle or lower middle families. HENCE THE RESULT Q#5: Which type of advertisement is more attractive for you? Frequency Table Type of advertisement | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |product |165 |55. 0 |55. 0 |55. | | |institutional |51 |17. 0 |17. 0 |72. 0 | | |celebrity |84 |28. 0 |28. 0 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: Here we’ll se that which advertisement type is more attractive for females. This question was made for the purpose to suggest the companies that females prefer which types of advertisements.
Here we can see that product advertisement is at the top of the list. Females are more familiar towards product advertisements instead of other types. Secondary celebrity advertisements are also very famous amongst the females but there should be improvements in this type for becoming more successful. HENCE THE RESULT Q#6: Is there any negative effect of advertisement on your buying behavior? Frequency Table Negative effect of advert | | |Frequency |Percent Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |yes |59 |19. 7 |19. 7 |19. 7 | | |no |66 |22. 0 |22. 0 |41. 7 | | |sometimes |147 |49. 0 |49. 0 |90. 7 | | |never |28 |9. 3 |9. 3 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | |
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: Now we’ll see that we know that advertisements have influencing effects on the buying behavior of females but is advertisement has negative effects as well or not. For this purpose we illustrated the above questionnaire and took feedback from females. From that feedback we came to know that mostly females think that sometimes advertisement effects negatively. These negative effects may be of any type. On the second and third place we can see that ratio is almost same, some females think that there are definitely bad effects of advertisement and some think that there is no any negative effects of advertisements.
And some said that there can never be any bad effects of advertisements. Advertisements are successful always. HENCE THE RESULT Q#7: Negative effects of advertisement may be of which type? Frequency Table Negative effects may b | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |You often neglects |109 |36. 3 |36. 3 |36. 3 | | |the price while | | | | | |purchasing | | | | | | |Too much prefer the |39 |13. 0 |13. 0 |49. 3 | | |celebrity | | | | | | |advertisement | | | | | | |Prefer only |73 |24. 3 |24. 3 |73. | | |appearance and | | | | | | |reputation of | | | | | | |company, not quality | | | | | | |others |79 |26. 3 |26. 3 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL:
In the above question we give some options regarding to negative effects of advertisements. That if there is any negative effect of advertisement then that should be what. So according to our research, we can say that females think that when new advertisement come then they often neglect the price of the product and purchase that advertised product. They don’t think that how much the product is expensive; they just go through to buy that product due to very attractive advertisement. Also a group of females said that they think that they often see the good appearance of the product and purchase that, they don’t consider the quality much at that time.
And also a large number of females said there are also other negative effects of advertisements that appear according to the conditions. HENCE THE RESULT Q#8: Effectiveness and attractiveness of advertisement depends upon Frequency Table Attraction towards | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |slogan |54 |18. 0 |18. 0 |18. 0 | | |trade mark |25 |8. |8. 3 |26. 3 | | |company repute |64 |21. 3 |21. 3 |47. 7 | | |appearance |39 |13. 0 |13. 0 |60. 7 | | |all of the above |118 |39. 3 |39. 3 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL:
We make this question for the marketing departments of the companies to suggest them that which things according to the females become an advertisement attractive and effective. That’s things may be of followings: Slogan Trade mark Company repute And appearance But the females said that all of the above options can combinely make an advertisement effective and attractive for females. If the companies give attention to all of the above things then they can attract the females toward their products through advertisement. HENCE THE RESULT
Q#9: How the advertisements of substitutes affect the popularity of any product Frequency Table Advertisement of substitute | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |Demand of the product |121 |40. 3 |40. 3 |40. 3 | | |reduces | | | | | | |You neglect the |67 |22. 3 |22. 3 |62. | | |product due to new | | | | | | |advertisement of | | | | | | |substitute | | | | | | |it doesn’t effect |112 |37. 3 |37. 3 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: Here is a question to check that if a new advertisement of the substitute of any existing product come then is that affects the popularity and sale volume of the existing product. So according to the feedback we can see that 121 females said that demand of the existing product decreases due the advertisement of the new product and 112 females said that it doesn’t effect the popularity of the product which means here is a controversy amongst the different group of females, which means that females perceive the new advertisements differently according to their mood and situations.
HENCE THE RESULT Q#10: Which advertisement media is more attractive for you? Frequency Table Advertisement media | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |electronic |187 |62. 3 |62. 3 |62. 3 | | |news paper |21 |7. 0 |7. 0 |69. 3 | | |fashion magazines |52 |17. 3 |17. 3 |86. | | |bill boards |34 |11. 3 |11. 3 |98. 0 | | |others |6 |2. 0 |2. 0 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: Now in this question we’ll see that which advertising Medias are most popular amongst females. Now here we can see that electronic media is the basic most important media for the popularity of the advertisements amongst the females.
On the second place we can also see that fashion magazines are also very popular amongst females like akhbar-e-jahan and others. HENCE THE RESULT Q#11: How advertisements affect the level of your buying Frequency Table Advertisement effect level of buying | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |buy more |106 |35. 3 |35. 3 |35. 3 | | |buy less |30 |10. 0 |10. 0 |45. | | |remains same |164 |54. 7 |54. 7 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: Here we are checking that how the advertisement affects the level of the buying of females. Is it positively affects or negatively or remains neutral. So here we can see that mostly females said their there level of buying remains same with the new advertisements. They buy in the routine; there is not any big change due to advertisements.
But on the second hand another big group of females said that their buying level increases with the new and innovative advertisements. When any advertisement attracts them then they definitely buy that due to which their buying level increases. HENCE THE RESULT Q#12: Advertisements of imported products are more attractive for you due to Frequency Table Advertisement of imported products | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |quality |120 |40. |40. 0 |40. 0 | | |reliability |77 |25. 7 |25. 7 |65. 7 | | |company image |59 |19. 7 |19. 7 |85. 3 | | |status |44 |14. 7 |14. 7 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL:
Females in our country prefer a lot the imported goods on local goods so we conducted the research for this purpose also that what are the reasons behind this so that our local companies can also adopt that strategies so that their selling will also increase So according to the results we can see that females prefer them due to the quality and reliability of that products, the imported products are more reliable and have the good quality due to which they prefer them and neglect the local goods. HENCE THE RESULT
Q#13: Which advertisement, for the following categories, is more attractive for you Frequency Table More attractive advertisement categories | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |basic accessories |91 |30. 3 |30. 3 |30. 3 | | |home appliances |52 |17. 3 |17. 3 |47. 7 | | |art and craft |36 |12. 0 |12. 0 |59. 7 | | |cosmetics |120 |40. |40. 0 |99. 7 | | |others |1 |. 3 |. 3 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL: We know that advertisement is very popular amongst the females but here we wanted to know that advertisements of which category are mostly popular. Here according to the results female like the ads of cosmetics more and then come towards the basic accessories of life and on the other categories.
HENCE THE RESULT Q#14: Degree of your satisfaction, towards consumption of goods depends upon Frequency Table Degree of satisfaction, consumption of goods | | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |good quality |174 |58. 0 |58. 0 |58. 0 | | |price |38 |12. 7 |12. |70. 7 | | |appearance |34 |11. 3 |11. 3 |82. 0 | | |company image |30 |10. 0 |10. 0 |92. 0 | | |others |24 |8. 0 |8. 0 |100. 0 | | |Total |300 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: [pic] IN THE NUT SHELL:
Satisfaction is very important for every one, towards consumption of goods. If a costumer is satisfied then he will again and again purchase that product. According to our research we came to know that females become satisfy mostly due to good quality of the product. Price, appearance, company images have the secondary importance for the satisfaction of females towards consumption of goods. HENCE THE RESULT
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