Child Developement

Question 1 Brown and Brownell (1990) found that toddlers who frequently initiated conflicts with peers: A. a. were the most sociable and initiated the most interactions. B. b. were unpopular with peers C. c. were insecurely attached to their parents. D. d. were socially immature. Question 2 What kinds of attributions are socially incompetent children likely to make in ambiguous situations? A. a. nonthreatening. B. b. external. C. c. hostile. D. d. friendly. Question 3 Which peer status is the most stable over time? A. a. popular. B. b. neglected. C. c. controversial. D. d. rejected. Question 4 of 36

Peer relationships: A. a. are more prominent in the United States than in any other culture around the world. B. b. are less prominent in the United States than in other cultures around the world. C. c. are not emphasized in most cultures around the world. D. d. vary in prominence among ethnic groups within the United States. Question 5 of 36 Studies (in the early 1990’s) of cross-cultural differences in peer relationships in middle childhood found that __________ was related to peer acceptance in China and peer rejection in Canada. A. a. cooperation. B. b. height. C. c. shyness. D. d. ocio-economic status. Question 7 Girls with numerous mixed-sex antipathies are likely to be ______ while boys with numerous mixed-sex antipathies are likely to be ________. A. a. antisocial; popular. B. b. popular; rejected. C. c. aggressive; victimized. D. d. depressed; antisocial. Question 8 Which is considered the most significant factor that influences a child’s peer acceptance? A. a. attractiveness. B. b. social and cognitive skills. C. c. verbal ability. D. d. athletic ability. Question 9 In low-income neighborhoods, A. a. friendships are less abundant than in high-income neighborhoods. B. b. hildren have less access to large peer groups than children in high-income neighborhoods. C. c. parents can protect their children by monitoring their activities. D. d. parents usually have to plan their children’s social interactions for them. Question 10 Williams and Best (1990) studied gender stereotypes in 25 countries from around the world and found: A. a. that Western cultures have more gender stereotypes than Eastern cultures. B. b. that more industrialized cultures have fewer gender stereotypes than developing countries. C. c. the concept of gender stereotypes to be mainly an Anglo-Saxon phenomenon.

D. d. similar patterns of gender stereotypes across most cultures. Question 11 As men age, they tend to: A. a. become more stereotypically masculine. B. b. become more emotionally and behaviorally expressive. C. c. become more socially conscious. D. d. become more psychologically mature. Question 12 According to Kohlberg, children recognize that they are either boys or girls during the stage of: A. a. gender-schemas. B. b. basic gender identity. C. c. gender constancy. D. d. gender stability. Question 13 Recent research on children of gay and lesbian parents suggests that: A. a. oys reared in lesbian families are more likely to play with toys traditionally associated with girls. B. b. children raised in homosexual families differ in gender-role behavior from children raised in heterosexual families. C. c. children raised in homosexual families are more likely to develop a gay or lesbian sexual orientation. D. d. more research needs to be conducted regarding the role of biological and environmental influences on the development of gender-related behaviors. Question 14 of 36 In which of the following areas were real gender differences found to exist? A. a. typical development. B. b. suggestibility. C. c. learning style. D. d. achievement. Question 15 Daughters who experienced father absence, regardless of the reason, have been found to exhibit: A. a. sexual precocity. B. b. excessive anxiety about sexuality. C. c. shyness around males. D. d. disruptions in relationships with males. Question 16 of 36 Eleanor Maccoby’s research on gender segregation suggests that: A. a. girls seek out interactions with boys because they find rough-and-tumble play exciting. B. b. girls are very good at using direct demands with boys to get what they want.

C. c. girls find it easier to influence other girls but not boys. D. d. girls admire the competitive-dominance orientation of boys. Question 17 of 36 What event is associated with a sharp divergence of gender roles? A. a. dating. B. b. marriage. C. c. parenthood. D. d. divorce. Question 18 of 36 Which of the following differences in mathematical abilities between males and females is NOT correct? A. a. Males are superior to females only in geometry. B. b. Males are superior to females in both geometry and algebra. C. c. Girls do better than boys in computational skills.

D. d. There are no differences in tests of basic math knowledge. Question 19 of 36 According to Gilligan, men rely on a(n) ___________ to solve moral problems, whereas women are more likely to focus on a(n): A. a. individual rights orientation; caring orientation. B. b. caring orientation; individual rights orientation. C. c. power orientation; individual rights orientation. D. d. caring orientation; power orientation. Question 20 Research by Patterson and colleagues at the Social Learning Center has found that the families of aggressive boys are characterized by: A. a. arents who punish their children only when they behave inappropriately. B. b. children who become the passive victims of aggressive parents. C. c. cycles of mutually coercive behavior between family members. D. d. siblings who support each other in order to cope with their aggressive parents. Question 21 of 36 Which of the following parental behaviors has been associated with more mature moral judgments? A. a. the use of physical punishment. B. b. discussions about the feelings of others. C. c. establishing an authoritarian climate in the home. D. d. discussions of political issues.

Question 23 What types of activities facilitated more mature judgments according to Kohlberg? A. a. religious activities. B. b. parent-child discussion of moral issues. C. c. peer interactions that involve sharing. D. d. social activities that involve role taking. Question 24 From her research on how children’s thinking about prosocial activities changes across development, Eisenberg concluded that prosocial reasoning and moral reasoning: A. a. were identical processes. B. b. were related but independent. C. c. showed no similarities until adulthood. D. d. were negatively related.

Question 25 Altruistic behaviors differ from prosocial behaviors in that: A. a. prosocial behaviors involve other people and are more social. B. b. altruistic behaviors are voluntary and prosocial behaviors are not. C. c. altruistic behaviors benefit other people while prosocial behaviors do not. D. d. altruistic behaviors involve the willingness to help another without any expectation of reciprocity. Question 26 Piaget investigated the developmental course of moral judgments by studying changes in children’s attitudes toward rules in games and changes in children’s:

A. a. judgments of the seriousness of transgressions. B. b. prosocial and altruistic behavior. C. c. reactions to parental discipline. D. d. ability to control their aggressive impulses. Question 27 Kohlberg’s stages are based on: A. a. whether children’s responses to moral dilemmas emphasize obedience. B. b. children’s decision to emphasize obedience or welfare in response to moral dilemmas and their reasoning for their decision. C. c. children’s understanding of the rules of common games. D. d. children’s reactions to parental punishment. Question 28

Research studies comparing the effects of psychostimulant medication on the interactions of hyperactive children and their parents found: A. a. medication helped improve parent-child interactions. B. b. medication made no difference in mother-child interactions. C. c. maternal expectations confounded the results. D. d. child expectations increased appropriate interactions. Question 29 Which of the following statements is correct? A. a. Over three times as many boys as girls are reported to exhibit conduct disorders. B. b. More girls than boys are labeled as having undercontrolled behavior disorders.

C. c. Overcontrolled behavior disorders are the most frequently reported of all psychological problems of childhood. D. d. Undercontrolled behavior is defined by its negative impact on the individual. Question 30 o Children who are coercive and confrontational with parents are usually: A. a. popular with their peers. B. b. neglected by their peers. C. c. preferred by their peers. D. d. rejected by their peers. Question 31 In order for a diagnosis to be useful, it must be: A. a. consistent and reliable. B. b. valid and reliable. C. c. accurate and valid. D. d. objective and independent. Question 32

The most effective treatment for autism is: A. a. cognitive therapy. B. b. counseling. C. c. play therapy. D. d. operant behavior therapy. Question 33 Cross-cultural data from Thailand indicates that, in comparison to the U. S. perception of under- and overcontrolled behavior, Thais rate their children’s behavior problems as: A. a. less troublesome. B. b. more troublesome. C. c. a pervasive problem. D. d. indicative of a need for attention. Question 34 Whether a particular behavior problem is to be viewed as normal or not greatly depends on the probability that it will continue over time, and the child’s:

A. a. personality. B. b. race. C. c. age. D. d. IQ. Question 35 Two of the earliest behavioral warning signs for psychopathology in children are: A. a. overcompliance and depression. B. b. noncompliant behaviors and peer rejection. C. c. assertiveness and low academic achievement. D. d. depression and withdrawal. Question 36 Critics of the medical model’s explanation of psychopathology are more apt to explain psychological or abnormal pathologies in terms of: A. a. problems in living. B. b. social judgments. C. c. physical factors. D. d. cognitive deficits.

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